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Cytology is an important part of a preventive gynecological examination and makes it possible to detect already beginning changes in the cells of the cervix. The test is sometimes referred to as the PAP test. This diagnostic method is time-saving and almost painless. The doctor takes a swab from the surface and the inside of the cervix with a special small brush. The obtained cells are ground on a microscope slide. The preparation thus formed is then fixed, stained and evaluated in a microscope. The next procedure depends on the found finding. If pre-cancerous or cancerous changes are suspected, further special examinations will be performed on the patient. In addition to the standard cytological examination, more modern and more accurate cytological examination has recently been used - the so-called Liquid Based Cytology (LBC) . It is a diagnostic method that has the same principle as classical oncological cytology, but the harvested cells are stored in a special solution in a container, ie they are not coated on a slide. The processing of the material allows, in case of a suspicious finding from the same preparation, to perform some additional examinations. However, insurance companies do not overpay for LBC examinations and the woman will pay for it  must pay extra. The price for an LBC examination is € 20.

ASCUS  (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)  means  atypical squamous cells of unknown origin. The diagnosis of ASCUS means that the abnormalities observed in the cells of the cervix are mild and their origin is unknown. The ASC-US finding means that the smear result is slightly abnormal  and the risk of major pre-tumor changes is very small. In any case, a check-up must be performed - most often a control cytological swab (in about 3-6 months).  It is advisable to consider a more detailed examination of the cervix ( LBC , HPV testing, biopsy, etc ..).

AGC-NOS (Atypical glandular cells not otherwise specified) -   it is necessary to check the swab after 3-6 months of careful waiting, the so-called  watchful waiting. It is appropriate to re-treat any  cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix), because untreated inflammation can also contribute to precancerous lesions.  


ASC-H (Atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL)  - this is a finding of changes in cells that do not yet meet the criteria for pre-cancerous status, but the changes are more severe than in the ASCUS finding.  


SIL  (Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion)  or  low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  means that these are more specific but still mildly abnormal cells in the cervix. The risk of major pre-tumor changes is very small. If this cytological finding is repeated in another control smear, a biopsy should be verified. Anyway  in  must do  control  -  most often  control  cytological  star  (for  approx  6 months).

H-SIL  (High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion)  or  high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  means that these are severely abnormal cervical cells that are highly likely to develop cervical cancer.  

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